Nutrition disorder frequency in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico

Clemente Vásquez, Benjamín Trujillo-Hernández, Raymundo Velasco-Rodríguez, Víctor Manuel Bautista-Hernández
4.091 848


BACKGROUND AND AIMS. The objectives were to determine nutrition disorder frequency, energy intake and type of nutrients in the diet of 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico.
MATERIAL AND METHODS. A populational survey was applied to 1992 children in the state of Colima, Mexico. The variables studied were weight, age, age-related weight, age-related height and body mass index (the last 3 expressed in percentiles). In a direct survey, parents provided information on all foods their children had eaten 24 hours before survey. The WM Boothby and J Berkson food nomogram and the Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition Mexican Food Composition Tables were used to determine child daily energy requirements.
RESULTS. In relation to body mass index, overweight and obesity was 28.5% in girls and 33.0% in boys. Malnutrition was present in 10.1 % of girls and 5.5 % of boys. Adequate energy intake was 31.3%. There was also 39.5%, 39.7%, and 32.5% adequate intake of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS. In relation to body mass index in 5- to 9-year-old children from Colima, Mexico, nutrition disorder frequency was 38.6%, inadequate energy intake was 68.7%, and almost two-thirds of children had inadequate nutrient intake.


Children; Malnutrition; Nutrition disorder; Obesity; Overweight

Full Text:



FAO. Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura. El espectro de la malnutrición. Dirección de alimentación y nutrición. 2000.

United Nations Organization. Cumbre Mundial de la Alimentación. UNO, Roma. 2002

Rosembaum M. Obesity. New Engl J Med 1997; 337: 396-408.

Bennett P. Obesity. 82º Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society. Toronto, Canada. 2000

Ristow M. Obesity associated with a mutation in a genetic regulator of adipocyte differentiation. New Engl J Med 1998; 339: 953Esquivel RH, Martínez SC, Martínez JC. Nutrición y Salud. La nutrición. México, El Manual Moderno, 1998.

National Health and Nutrition Survey. Editores Olaiz G, Rivera T, Shamah T, Rojas R, Villalpando S, Hernández M, Sepşlveda J. Instituto Nacional de Salud y Secretaria de Salud. México. 2006

Habitch JP, Matorel R, Yarbrough C. Height and weight standards for preschool children. How relevant are ethnic differences in growth potential?. Lancet 1974; 1: 611-4.

World Health Organization Expert Committee Physical Status: the use and Interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert committee. WHO Tech Rep Serv 1995; 854: 1-452.

Mahan KL. Nutrición y dietoterapia. México. McGraw-Hill. 1998.

Salvador Zubirán National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition. Tablas de Composición de los Alimentos Mexicanos. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán. México. 2004.

Ballabriga A, Carrascosa A. Nutrición en la edad preescolar y escolar. En: Ballabriga A, Carrascosa A, eds. Nutrición en la infancia y adolescencia. Madrid, Ediciones Ergon, 2001; 425-47.

Toussaint GM. Patrones de dieta y actividad física en la patogénesis de la obesidad en el escolar urbano. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 2000; 57: 650-61.

Saris WHM, Asp NGL, Björk I, Blaak E, Brouns F, Frayn KN. Functional food science and substrate metabolism. Brit J Nutr 1998; 80: 47-75.

Golden MHN. The role of individual nutrient deficiencies in growth retardation of children, as exemplified by zinc and protein. In: Waterlow JC, ed. Linear growth retardation in less developed countries. Vevey/New York, Nestlé Nutrition/Raven Press, 1988; 143-64.

Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary fat does affect obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1998; 68: 1157-73.

Rolls BJ, Kim-Harris S, Fischman MW, Foltin RW. Satiety after preloads with different amounts of fat and carbohydrate: implications for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 60: 476-87.

Fosnocht MK. Grass. Philadelphia, PA. A.D.A.M. Inc. VeriMed Healthcare Network. 200 García PL. Papel de la ingesta lipídica en la obesidad. Nutr Hosp 2002; 17: 67-72.

Castiglia PT. Obesity in adolescence. J Pediatr Health Care 1999; 3: 221-3.

Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents 19992000. JAMA-J Am Med Assoc 2002; 288: 1728Delgado Sánchez G, Hurtado González MI, Moreno González DC, Vallejo de la Cruz NL, Ortiz Hernández L. Hábitos alimentarios y actividad física en un grupo de escolares de la Ciudad de México. Diferencias por género y nivel socioeconómico. Nutr Clin 2004; 7: 207Amigo H. Obesity in the Latin American children: situation, diagnostic criteria and challenges. Cad Saşde Pşblica 2003; 19: S163Dei-Cas PG. Sobrepeso y obesidad en la niñez. Relación con factores de riesgo. Arch Argent Pediatr 2002; 100: 368-72.

Aranceta BJ, Pérez RC, Ribas BL, Serra ML. Epidemiología y factores determinantes de la obesidad infantil y juvenil en España. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria 2005; 7: S13-20.