Immunization Uptake among Children of a Migrant Tribal Community Living in an Eastern Indian city
Background: In India, of the rural-urban migrants, a small segment of people migrated from tribal areas (hilly forest areas) and they possess more vulnerability due to their multiple disadvantage.
Objective: To report immunization uptake of children of tribal migrants living in an urban city of Eastern India.
Methods: Data were collected from 126 tribal households who migrated to the city during last 12 years. Data pertaining to the awareness of vaccines and reception of various vaccines were collected from mothers through interviewer administered questionnaire.
Results: About 95% of mothers were aware of the vaccines. However, immunization uptake was low among this migrant tribal community. About 40% of children who attained 1 year age did not receive even a single vaccine, and none of the child received all doses of required vaccines. The uptake is too low among girl children.
Conclusions: Migration favours low uptake of vaccination. Hence, migrant-sensitive approaches are to be placed along with the regular primary healthcare services existing in urban areas.
Mathew JL. Inequity in childhood immunization in India: a systematic review. Indian Pediatr 2012; 49: 203-23.
Census of India. Primry data highlights. Chapter2 (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Population). Available at:http://www.censusindia. gov.in/2011census/hlo/ PCA_Highlights/ pca_ highlights_file/India/Chapter-2.pdf
Subramanian SV, Smith GD, Subramanyam M. Indigenous health and socioeconomic status in India. PLoS Med 2006; 3: 1794-1804.
National Sample Survey Organization. Migration in India (2007-2008). NSS 64th ROUND (July 2007 – June 2008). New Delhi: National Sample Survey Office, Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation, Government of India; 2010.
Singh PK, Rai RK, Singh L. Examining the effect of household wealth and migration status on safe delivery care in urban India, 1992-2006. PLoS One 2012; 7: e44901.
Obrist B, Iteba N, Lengeler C, Makemba A, Mshana C, Nathan R, Alba S, Dillip A, Hetzel MW, Mayumana I, Schulze A, Mshinda H. Access to health care in contexts of livelihood insecurity: a framework for analysis and action. PLoS Med 2007; 4: 1584–8.
Agarwal S, Bhanot A, Goindi G. Understanding and addressing childhood immunization coverage in urban slums. Indian Pediatr 2005; 42: 653-63.
World Bank. World Data Bank - Health Nutrition and Population Statistics. Available at http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/variabl eselection/ select variables. aspx?source =healthnutrition-and-population-statistics. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and Macro International. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), India, 2005-06: Orissa.
Mumbai: International Institute of Population Sciences; 2008.
Babu BV, Swain BK, Mishra S, Kar SK. Primary healthcare services among a migrant indigenous population living in an eastern Indian city. J Immigr Minor Health 2010; 12: 53-9.
Xaxa V. Women and gender in the study of tribes in India. Indian J Gender Stud 2004; 11: 345–67.
Kusuma YS, Kumari R, Pandav CS, Gupta SK. Migration and immunization: determinants of childhood immunization uptake among socioeconomically disadvantaged migrants in Delhi, India. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 15: 1326-1332.
Heaman M, Bayrampour H, Kingston D, Blondel B, Gissler M, Roth C, Alexander S, Gagnon A. Migrant Women's Utilization of Prenatal Care: A Systematic Review. Matern Child Health J. 2012; DOI 1007/s10995-012-1058-z.